An EMP cannot be prevented, but its effects can be minimised with a good understanding of the factors that affect the coupling of the pulse to the electrical systems of the infrastructure.
If growing numbers of EV are to be recharged frequently by cable, their use will be severely limited: wireless battery charging is the answer to mobility.
Principia has conducted bird strike simulations on leading edges and other parts of a number of commercial and military aircraft, both with aluminium alloys and with composite materials.
Virtual testing using electromagnetic and multiphysics simulation allows engineers to investigate the behaviour of the aircraft under a variety of scenarios and to see the effect of design changes on electric currents and fields.
In the process of designing a new container the best option is to make use of numerical simulation by finite elements (FEA), combined if necessary with computational fluid dynamics (CFD).
Numerical simulation is always a faster, simpler and cheaper solution than traditional prototypes in the early phases of design.
With adequate software one can design a virtual container and carry out virtual tests for approval purposes in a couple of hours, sometimes in minutes, with the added advantage that shapes and materials can be easily modified.
Integral bridge design offers the advantages of structural monolithism because of the absence of joints and bearings makes construction easier and faster, and also results in maintenance savings.
When a bridge is going to be built over water, there is the possibility of bringing successive deck segments by barge and lifting them into position. The process is conceptually simple but, particularly in open waters, as in a bay or estuary, the dynamics of the operation may be rather complex.
The realistic simulation tools are accessible to allow conducting comparisons between the basic design alternatives without a specialised knowledge of the simulation technologies that underlie the virtual analyses.